fights (a state-by-state database)
This page is an evolving database of freeway fights across North America.
While it is an incomplete list, it appears to be the most comprehensive
compilation available on the internet. It is interesting that the national
environmental groups such as Sierra Club and Natural Resources Defense
Council (NRDC) do not keep track of all of these efforts, nor do they
maintain guidebooks to help citizen groups fight freeways (beyond the
obvious suggestions of promoting public transit instead of more roads).
on freeway fights
Road to Ruin report (1999 publication highlighting key road fights - published
by Taxpayers for Common Sense and Friends of the Earth)
Friends of the Earth website for Road to Ruin
full report at www.foe.org/res/pubs/pdf/r2r04.pdf
Stop the Road- Freeway Revolts in American Cities -- Mohl 30 (5)- 674
-- Journal of Urban History
Freeway and expressway revolts
- World CarFree Network (links to international efforts to promote transit,
bicycles and stop highway expansion)
New Transportation Secretary Mary Peters to ensure Bush crime family
super-highway projects proceed unimpeded.
Sept. 8/9/10, 2006 -- George W. Bush's pick for Transportation Secretary
represents a major conflict-of-interest designed to spur the construction
of the Trans-Texas Corridor -- a project in which Bush and his cronies
are heavily invested. Last week, Bush nominated Mary Peters to replace
Norman Mineta as Secretary of Transportation. Unlike Mineta, a former
congressman who then became a Vice President fo the aerospace defense
giant Lockheed Martin, Peters comes out of the surface transportation
industry. She is a vice president for the engineering firm HDR and co-vice
chairman of the National Surface Transportation Policy and Revenue Study
Commission. From 2001 to 2005, Peters was the head of the Federal Highway
Administration. Peters is also a former head of the Arizona Department
of Transportation. Peters worked in the administration of disgraced GOP
Governor Fife Symington, who was convicted of bank fraud and resigned
from office. (Symington was later pardoned by his college friend, President
Peters' commitment to major "infrastructure development" of
the nation's highways centers on the development of the North American
SuperCorridor (NASCO) highway, of which the Tran-Texas Corridor will be
a major component. Already, Bush crime syndicate cronies, including interests
tied to Texas Governor Rick Perry, are purchasing property along the proposed
Texas highway route at cut-rate prices, using "eminent domain"
statutes to pay less than what private and commercial property is worth.
The money for the massive land grab is coming from Saudi and Chinese sources,
according to knowledgeable sources in Texas. The NASCO highway will cross
11 states: Texas, Oklahoma, Kansas, Missouri, Iowa, South Dakota, North
Dakota, Minnesota, Michigan, Indiana and Illinois. It will also connect
proposed Mexican super ports in Manzanillo, Mazatlan, and Lazaro Cardenas
to various United States trucking and distribution super-hubs in San Antonio,
Dallas, Kansas City, as well as one in Winnipeg in Canada. The Mexican
ports will be receiving points for manufactured products from China. The
theft of the Mexican presidency by conservative Felipe Calderon at the
expense of populist leader Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador was engineered
to protect the sizeable investments the Bush crime cartel, including The
Carlyle Group, and their Saudi and Chinese financiers have already sunk
into the project.
Eventually, NASCO will be expanded as far south as Argentina by linking
North America to Central America (Mexico-Central American Corridor and
an improved Pan American Highway). The expensive tolls charged throughout
the 10-lane super-highway system will be used to line the pockets of the
Bush family well into the middle of the 21st century. Peters, as a highway
and trucking industry shill, has been entrusted by the Bush crime cartel
to ensure that the plans for NASCO and the Pan American Super Corridor
proceed unimpeded. It is estimated that as many as 1 million Texans alone,
many in rural and poor urban areas, could be displaced by the Trans-Texas
Fights - current (an incomplete list)
Hayward (East Bay), California - Hayward Bypass
Hopland, California - Hopland Bypass
Willits, California - Willits Bypass
Pasadenia, California (Los Angeles basin) I-710
US 6 (canceled I-84 - to Providence, RI)
Georgia / North Carolina / Tennessee - I-3
However, a glance at the map of the proposed route shows that I-3
would go right by the massive Savannah river Site (SRS) nuclear complex
in South Carolina across from Augusta, Georgia and would terminate,
not in Knoxville itself, but at the recently completed I-140 spur running
from Maryville-Alcoa to the nuclear facilities at Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
While rarely mentioned by I-3 proponents, it is likely that this nuclear
connection is a key reason why this interstate project is being proposed.
The nuclear weapons complex, composed of widely dispersed sites throughout
the West and the Southeast, has for years depended on transporting dangerous
radioactive materials, including plutonium and tritium, on our highways.
The new nuclear weapons complex being planned will have production facilities
concentrated at Oak Ridge, TN, Watts Bar, TN, Savannah River Site, SC,
and the Pantex facility in Amarillo, Texas.
Currently there is a large amount of nuclear material shipped between
Oak Ridge and the Savannah River Site (see www.nirs.org/factsheets/ashevillenuclearcrossroads2004.pdf).
And the nuclear power industry, having no solution to the problem of
providing safe long-term storage for reactor wastes, seems to just want
to move them around.
Problems with the dump which has been proposed for Yucca Mountain, Nevada,
mean that the Savannah River Site may also soon be on the receiving
end of large amounts of radioactive waste. The guidelines for routing
I-3 as proposed by Rep. Charlie Norwood call for the new interstate
to run as "a direct, Savannah to Knoxville Interstate. That's not
Statesboro to Anderson, or Savannah to Gainesville - but Savannah, Augusta,
and Knoxville tied together in as straight a line as practical."
That is to the west side of Knoxville (i.e. Oak Ridge). Isn't it obvious
that Interstate 3 would be a very busy radioactive highway?
US 95 bypass
I-355 extension from I-88 to I-80 (lawsuit overturned
EIS in1997, new EIS prepared and then approved in 2002, construction is
underway in 2006)
Prairie Parkway - a 35-mile expressway connecting
I-88 and I-80
Citizens Against the Sprawlway
- City of Yorkville wants the highway
- official website
Rep. Hastert finds rural home, away from traffic and sprawl
Speaker Hastert defends profits from land deals
By DENNIS CONRAD
Associated Press Writer
Published June 15, 2006, 4:28 PM CDT
WASHINGTON -- House Speaker Dennis Hastert denied Thursday that he pushed
for federal funding for a proposed highway in northeastern Illinois
so he and his wife could reap about $1.8 million from land deals near
their home in Kendall County.
The Sunlight Foundation, a newly created group whose declared aim is
to inform the public about what members of Congress do, has accused
Hastert of not divulging connections between the $207 million earmark
he won for the highway and an investment he and his wife made in nearby
Route 158 - Gateway Connector, an eastern Outer Beltway
segment for St. Louis
- Illinois Citizens for Smart Growth
- 9 reasons Route 158 is not needed
- Illinois DOT site with map of proposed route
Indiana's Experience with Tolling and Privatization
Indy Bypass Toll Road - the latest proposal without a need
Illiani Toll Road - will northern Indiana have any free roads left?
New Terrain I-69 - throwing a billion dollars out the window
[note: the Indy Bypass would be part of an Outer Beltway for Indianapolis,
and the Illiani Toll Road would bypass Gary and other southwest suburbs
of Chicago. It looks like it would connect to the future I-355 to complete
an Outer Outer Beltway for Chicago.]
Indiana (and all the way to Texas and Mexico) I-69 - NAFTA Superhighway
South Lawrence Trafficway
freeway through rare wetlands, Native sites - part of mega Kanasa City
the SLT was defeated in court in the late 1990s, but it risen from the
Montgomery and Prince Georges Counties (Washington suburbs)
I-370 - Inter County Connector (part of a planned Washington,
D.C. Outer Beltway)
Permatopia page on the ICC - www.permatopia.com/icc/comments.html
Montgomery Intercounty Connector Coalition
Eyes of Paint Branch (one of the watersheds threatened by the ICC)
Longmead United Against the ICC (neighborhood that would be bisected)
Charles County - Waldorf Bypass / Eastern Bypass
Officials May Back Alternative to Waldorf Bypass
By Todd Shields
Washington Post Staff Writer
Thursday, May 1, 1997; Page D02
Counties To Press State on Funding
Conference Held In Ocean City
By Jessica Valdez and Josh Partlow
Washington Post Staff Writers
Thursday, August 19, 2004; Page SM01
Lack of state funding and concern over the project's impact on wetlands
have stalled the Waldorf bypass, the county's top road priority.
Sunrise Highway (Clackamas County, near Portland) -
planned expressway between I-205 and US 26 through Damascus
Citizens for Sensible Transportation (a Portland regional group that
helped stop the Western Bypass) no longer seems to have their website
West Eugene Parkway - planned expressway on drawing
boards since 1951 -
details at WETLANDS
840 Alternatives is a citizens advisory group which seeks to educate
Middle Tennesseans about the dangers of -- and positive alternatives
to -- the proposed construction of State Route 840 North through Wilson,
Sumner, Robertson, Cheatham, and Dickson Counties.
State spends a lot of money on scenic roads that travel through nowhere
- November 8, 2001
Houston - Grand Parkway (fourth Beltway planned for Houston)
NAFTA Superhighway - I-69
NAFTA Superhighway - I-35 upgrade / Trans-Texas Corridor
The Trans Texas Corridor is a series of planned super highways without
parallel (yes, they are bigger in Texas). It would include freeways for
cars, truck only lanes, freight and passenger rail lines, and utilities
- power lines, water pipes, oil and gas pipelines. It is a prototype of
several other "corridors" around the country.
movie about the planned Trans Texas Corridor superhighways (in opposition)
blog for "Truth Be Tolled"
The Trans-Texas Corridors, eminent domain abuse, and the Texas Toll
Vermont Circumferential Highway - Interstate
- Circ is risen from the dead
CIRCUMFERENTIAL HIGHWAY STOPPED BY JUDGE
VFOS Sees Opportunity for Exploring Highway Alternatives
The Vermont Forum on Sprawl hailed the federal district court’s
May 10th, 2004 decision to halt construction of the Circumferential
Highway as an opportunity for Vermonters to explore alternatives to
this massive highway project. Judge William Sessions cited the failure
of the proponents to adequate assess the induced and cumulative growth
impacts of the highway within their Environmental Impact Statement (1986)
and subsequent Environmental Assessment (2003).
Excerpts from the May 10th Ruling of Judge Sessions
"…the 1986 FEIS included no discussion whatsoever of
cumulative impacts. It contained a sketchy acknowledgment of indirect
impacts with regard to agricultural lands with no analysis. These
deficiencies cause the 1986 FEIS to fail to meet the standards for
an adequate EIS for purposes of adoption by FHWA."
"Induced growth consists not only of growth that would not have
occurred absent the project, but of relocated or redirected growth
due to changes in accessability. The 1986 FEIS assumed that relocated
development would occur generally in the vicinity of the new intersections
and in high density zoning districts… There was no discussion
of the potential detrimental impact upon areas from which population
and resources would be drained."
"In its induced growth analysis, FHWA did not consider factors
such as the detrimental social and economic impact of draining jobs
and population from the region's cities: Burlington, South Burlington,
Essex Junction and Winooski. In response to comments pointing out
this omission, FHWA noted that growth rates in the urban core cities
have been declining for thirty years and are predicted to continue."
"... The Court cannot conclude that this constitutes a "hard
look" at the effects of relocated growth in a region. The 1986
FEIS did not discuss any development pressure on towns not directly
adjacent to the CCCH. In fact, these towns aren't even on the maps
included in the FEIS. The FREA's induced growth study summarizes that
while the Adjacent Towns25 and Outer Towns26 will experience small
increases in accessibility, their growth potential is affected by
construction of the CCCH:
"[h]owever, planning and zoning within some of these towns is
less developed, and growth pressures within some of these towns may
result in uneven growth patterns."
I-73 (Roanoke to NC)
US 29 Charlottesville Bypass
Western Transportation Corridor (Washington Bypass)
Outer Connector (Fredericksburg)
99 Viaduct Replacement
Washington Commerce Corridor
aka Cascadia Foothills study
(giant bypass of Seattle from Oregon to British Columbia - a NAFTA Superhighway)
July 7, 2004
Turnpike to Perdition
The idea of a 'commerce corridor,' an enormous toll highway through Western
Washington, just won't die.
Stop the "I-605 sprawl highway” –
Tell state to focus on real transportation priorities!
The Washington State Department of Transportation (WSDOT) and private
consultants are studying the feasibility of a new north-south interstate
highway, marketed as a bi-national commerce corridor between Oregon and
British Columbia. The proposal for a new 450 foot-wide highway and pipeline
corridor east of I-405, is a thinly veiled attempt to build the I-605
beltway – a new highway bypass around the Greater Seattle Metropolitan
Neither a bi-national commerce corridor, nor a new I-605 beltway in the
Central Puget Sound Region, would significantly reduce traffic congestion,
but both would lead to urban sprawl and destroy farms, forests, and habitat.
Further study and funding for I-605 is a waste of valuable time and money
that should instead be used to address urgent transportation priorities.
Washington Commerce Corridor Feasibility Study
map of study area and potential routes
(a pro superhighway website)
- Commerce Corridor might be I-605
British Columbia, Canada
Citizens Concerned with Highway Expansion
May 16, 2005
Vancouver, BC's Freeway Dreams
campaign to stop the widening of the M1 motorway,
I-210 (numbered as another interstate) Alabama (link)
This is the original number approved for a proposed highway connecting
I-65 to I-10 in Mobile. The 6.25-mile project was conceived decades
ago; Alabama requested federal interstate funding in 1958. 
In 1980, the project was approved as Interstate 210. However, as public
hearings and studies continued, local opposition helped stop the highway
just short of I-10.  One of the early I-210 alternatives, a spur
from I-65 ending at Bauregard Street, was selected instead; , and
in 1987, the highway was renumbered I-165.  It opened in 1996.
Los Angeles - I-105 (built)
I-880 was originally assigned to what is now the I-80 bypass of Sacramento.
... In 1979, the Sacramento City Council, voted to delete the new I-80
alignment and use the funding and right-of-way for a rail transit system.
No other city had done this before. In 1980, the new I-80 alignment
was withdrawn from the Interstate system.
San Francisco, California
... the construction of the Embarcadero Freeway sparked rebellion against
other freeways planned for San Francisco, and the experience gained
in San Francisco's freeway fights was shared to fight freways across
the nation and around the globe.
Just in San Francisco, imagine the Panhandle of Golden Gate Park as
nothing more than a lavishly landscaped sunken freeway. How about a
freeway offshore of the Marina Green? Maybe a gash across the north
end of North Beach for 8 lanes of freeway? Or a few block of the Inner
Sunset gone for a freeway interchange? Stately homes along Tunnel Road
and Ashby Avenue in Berkeley replaced by a freeway? Or a toll plaza
on Angel Island for a SF - Tiburon bridge?
- 1947 map of proposed network, photos, history
California Orange County toll roads (built, lawsuit unsuccessful)
California - Carmel bypass (built, lawsuit unsuccessful)
I-70 (Glenwood Canyon)
Hartford - I-491, I-284, I-484
I-485 / Stone Mountain tollway (stopped)
April 18, 1975
Both the plans for I-485 and the Stone Mountain Tollway are officially
discontinued by the Georgia Department of Transportation
If you enjoy the parks and green spaces of intown Atlanta, thank the
residents who banded together to fight highway construction.
By PATRICIA SPRINKLE
Candler Park Neighborhood Organization (CPNO)
The Candler Park Neighborhood Organization (CPNO) is one of the most
active neighborhood groups in Atlanta. It is committed to preserving
the open, inclusive nature of the neighborhood --a place where a diverse
population of mixed races and income levels live together in harmony.
We wish to maintain and enhance the Candler Park neighborhood as a residential
The organization is made up of individuals who are interested in improving
living conditions and the quality of neighborhood life. The people unite
around common goals and problems. Our fight to stop the Stone Mountain
Tollway, because of the harm it would have done the residential character
of our neighborhood, exemplifies the spirit. We worked closely with
the city in planning renovations for Candler Park. We worked to make
sure the local MARTA station is an asset to our community. CPNO provides
a means for neighborhood residents to get involved in decisions that
affect their lives, thus realizing the ideal of democratic self-government.
Georgia 10 (Planned Interstate 485)
Georgia 10 is a remnant of a grand proposal to construct an east-west
freeway, named Interstate 485, between Interstate 75-85 in downtown
Atlanta east to join Interstate 285 (beltway) at Exits 39A-B in Clarkston.
This route was never built, but two segments remain from the original
freeway proposal: the Georgia 10 boulevard east of Interstate 75-85
and the U.S. 78 Stone Mountain Freeway in Clarkston.
The Georgia 10 segment was initially constructed in the 1960s and was
to be designated as Interstate 485/Georgia 410 (most Interstates in
Georgia have a Georgia 4xx hidden designation). As the freeway construction
marched eastward, communities rose in protest to this new corridor cutting
through their neighborhoods. The protest reached a fever pitch when
construction began during Governor Jimmy Carter's tenure in Georgia.
Governor Carter let a construction contract to extend Georgia 410/Interstate
485 east; however, residents protested by chaining themselves to construction
equipment associated with the roadwork. This protest resulted in the
end of the freeway construction, and Interstate 485 was scuttled.
Georgia 400 (built, lawsuit unsuccessful)
Outer Perimeter (largely canceled, an arc of it is still possible)
H-3 (built, lawsuit unsuccessful)
Crosstown Expressway - I-494 (stopped)
The original plan was to extend Interstate 69 from its current terminus
to downtown as a six-lane freeway known as Interstate 165, or the Fall
Creek Expressway. This route was eliminated due to local opposition
and the city and state received interstate substitution funds instead.
(The last of the money was just spent in 1996 on a rehabilitation of
Vieux Carré Expressway (stopped), would have gone through French
I-310 (number for canceled French Quarter expressway, number used for
completed bypass west of New Orleans built through swampland)
I-83, I-70, I-170 (stopped)
I-795 (part built, part stopped)
I-795 was planned to travel further east inside the Baltimore Beltway
near Wabash Avenue but was killed (late 1970s) by local opposition.
Since Baltimore does not have large amounts of parkland, there was growing
opposition to building an expressway through a city park, even though
the city had plans to acquire an equivalent amount of new parkland,
so that the total amount of parkland would not be diminished by the
new highway. The city kept this promise, by purchasing in the mid-1960s
the Windsor Estate adjacent to Leakin Park. Still, the later controversies
led to local groups and environmental organizations and the national
Sierra Club to the filing of lawsuits in court to attempt to stop the
construction. This alignment proposal was active until the early 1980s,
when it was finally cancelled. The federal highway funds allocated for
the segment from the city line to the I-170 junction were transferred
to provide full funding for the Baltimore Metro (rapid rail transit)
Owings Mills Extension (Section B) from Reisterstown Plaza Station to
Owings Mills Station.
Outer Beltway (stopped around 1972)
Rockville Freeway ./ Montrose Parkway
Outer Outer Beltway (listed on 1966 planning map)
Prince Georges County
A-44 (part of original Outer Beltway and later Inter County Connector)
- A-44 east of Baltimore-Washington Parkway has been canceled
bypass protested by African American community when it was built (their
protest was not successful)
Boston, Massachusetts - I-695 (Boston inner belt - stopped)
I-73 extension (to Ohio line - stopped)
Minneapolis - US 55 bypass (built, protest violently attacked by police)
2.74 miles ; proposed but unbuilt. Interstate 335 would have skirted
the north side of downtown Minneapolis, connecting I-94 to I-35W near
Broadway/Johnson Street. An 0.9-mile, $25M section was proposed as part
of the 1970 highway bill.
Proposed in 1964, I-335 was killed around 1975 due to neighborhood resistance,
as well as MNDot predictions that the route would actually increase
congestion in the I-94 Lowry Hill tunnel.
A political action committee in the St Anthony East neighborhood, hearing
of the planned elevated freeway, first requested that it be placed underground.
When the highway department declined this proposal, the PAC moved on
to opposing the freeway outright. 
It got as far as right-of-way acquisition, and some Evel Knievel ramps
are visible on I-35W between Hennepin Avenue and Johnston St. After
the highway was cancelled, the land was repopulated, with a swath of
new homes going through an otherwise much older neighborhood. I-335
was withdrawn in early 1978, and funding was transferred to I-394 and
other local projects.
highway through Creve Coeur Park
New York City
Westway (Jane Jacobs vs. Robert Moses)
I-26 - Asheville to the Tennessee border (built) - very controversial,
some of the largest cuts and fills of any US highway
Bend Parkway (built, lawsuit unsuccessful)
Roosevelt Freeway (1960s)
Beltline extensions in south hills
Skinner Butte Freeway
widened Ferry Street bridge - all stopped
Mount Hood Freeway
Western Bypass (stopped)
riverfront highway in downtown (removed)
I-305 (stopped, arterial road built instead)
Philadelphia suburbs - I-476 (built in 1990s)
I-99 (being built, lawsuit unsuccessful)
I-40 through Overton Park (stopped in famous Section 4(f) lawsuit
upheld by U.S. Supreme Court in 1971)
Salt Lake - Legacy Freeway
I-66 (scaled back but built)
Wilson Bridge (being built)
Smart Road (Blacksburg to Roanoke) - built, lawsuit unsuccessful
North Central Freeway
Barney Circle Freeway
Fort Circle freeway (all stopped)
Inside the Beltway: A direct route to central D. C. proposed
Proposed as a "new route [US] 240" in July 1957, I-270 was
originally planned to be called I-70S and to extend into Washington,
D. C. The exact location was under discussion. Circa 1958 and 1959,
I-70S was to end at I-66 near Georgetown.  Later, a terminus at I-95
near Takoma Park was considered. All plans met considerable opposition,
and in 1975 I-270 inside the Beltway was cancelled.
History of Historic Takoma, Inc.
The historic preservation movement in Takoma began over a quarter of a
century ago. As the Washington metropolitan area expanded in the early
1970s, the Takoma Community faced a number of development-related threats.
The most controversial of the proposed developments was the planned construction
of the North Central Freeway, which would have built an interstate highway
through the city and dramatically changed its character.
John D. Kelly Dies at 80; Advocated for Brookland
By Yvonne Shinhoster Lamb
Washington Post Staff Writer
Friday, May 14, 2004; Page B06
John D. Kelly, 80, who worked during the 1960s and 1970s in the District's
Brookland community to revitalize the business district and to block plans
for an expressway through the neighborhood, died of lung cancer May 1
at Providence Hospital in Washington.....
.... when local and federal agencies made plans to run an expressway
through Brookland, Mr. Kelly joined Sam Abbott, Thomas and Angela Rooney
and others in forming the Emergency Committee on the Transportation Crisis,
said his son Peter T. Kelly of Aspen, Colo.
The committee "held protests at the Three Sisters Bridge site, at
various blocks around our neighborhood which the government had seized
by eminent domain, and at congressional hearings and city council meetings,"
his son said. It was "ultimately successful in having the planned
I-95 expansion canceled and the Metro rail system built."
John Kelly was quoted in a 1978 Washington Post article about residents
of Brookland who fought the plans for the North Central Freeway and advocated
the Brookland-Catholic University Metro station.
"Our answer has been yes to urban transit, no to highway," Mr.
Kelly said. "The subway is a welcome addition to the community. We're
not interested in high-density development here. We're concerned about
preserving and refining the quality of life that exists."
In the 1960s, Mr. Kelly also was active in the strike against the D.C.
Transit System, the precursor company to Metro that was privately owned
by businessman O. Roy Chalk.
"I can remember the 'Erase Chalk' posters around the house and my
dad driving around D.C. in our station wagon giving free rides to people
who were participating in the strike," his son said.
Corridor H (being built)
US 12 upgrade - near Madison